Even knowing full well the symbolism of Chinese and Japanese culture, it is difficult to penetrate the mystery that hides the origins, life and psychology of the ninja. Because of the almost total absence of ancient written sources, the information that has reached us of the old ninja clan, patchy.Let`s start with the story
middle of VI century. While China was divided into two large states, and Wei Liang, and a number of smaller ones. All of them are at odds with each other. This struggle undermined their strength, and at the beginning of the next century power throughout the country moved to the new Tang Dynasty. In the Tang empire coexisted three religious and philosophical doctrines: Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Buddhism, which began to spread among the Chinese in the mid 1st century, more and more gaining momentum and become stronger so that the Tang emperors soon made it the state religion.
Buddhist clergy in China was divided into two main groups: those who lived in monasteries they were the majority and those who roamed the country, preaching and eating alms believed to differ significantly from official-
recognized. In his travels, wandering monks "Lyugai" gradually penetrated farther and farther outside of their home country - in Korea, Vietnam, and from the beginning of VII century - and in Japan.
should be noted that the Chinese government has always struggled with the wandering mendicant monks. Accusing them of distorting the teachings of the Buddha and of witchcraft, they pursued them with all means available. The monks, however, resisted and went to fight with the authorities so far that often sided with the insurgent groups or bands of robbers. Gradually, in this regard in their environment has developed a unique system of survival in extreme conditions, dubbed "Lyugai to Men" - "Gates of teaching the poor monks." It included the art of disguise, healing practices, preparation of medicines, hypnosis technique and entering into a trance, and many other things that help wandering monks to overcome the dangers that await them everywhere.
From the Tang Dynasty established strong links between Buddhist circles of China and Japan. Suffice it to say that all schools and sects of Japanese Buddhism that emerged in the period from VII to IX century, his philosophy and rituals borrowed from similar Chinese schools. But, getting on Japanese soil, schools of Chinese Buddhism is usually mixed with local beliefs and therefore underwent substantial changes. Strictly speaking, it is to distinguish it from Chinese prototypes.
Similar changes occurred with the sect of wandering monks "Lyugai", which was transformed into the movement of the Japanese monks mostly self-appointed, ie, did not have a state certificate, the so-called "sidoso" opposes itself to the official CER-
Kwee. This movement is called "gyoza" asceticism, and its central figure is a semi-legendary Enno ODZUN 634-703.
Raised in a wealthy and noble family, at age fifteen, he became a monk and studied the Buddhist canon. But the tendency to mysticism led him soon to leave the monastery and live in a cave overgrown with dense forest hillside Katsuragi. There he lived for more than 30 years. During this time with the help of Chinese ODZUN detailed acquaintance with the system "Lyugai to Men" and combined it with the Shinto cult mountains. As a result, he created the original teaching, which he called "shugendo" - "The path of gaining power».
important role in the practice of "gaining power" ie mastering supernatural forces ODZUN recognized Buddhist methods for achieving "enlightened sznaniya." We are talking about respiration and meditative exercises "kokyu" whale. `Qigong`. At the same time he took out of Shinto ritual ascent to the heights where supposedly inhabit mountain spirits kami, kindling sacred fires "goma" to attract divine power "Ikeya" vehicles entering into a trance "takisute" standing under a waterfall when adept changed consciousness under the influence of the flow of ice water falling on top of his head and another recitation "dzyumon" spells.
As roving mendicant friars "Lyugai" in China, the followers of "shugendo" in Japan very soon were persecuted by the secular authorities and the official church. Ascetic hermit deprived of treasury tax and monasteries - parishioners and gifts. At the same time they have enjoyed enormous prestige among the people as healers and diviners. It came to the point that many peasants began to consider the self-styled monks and hermits of these vagrants, the only true followers of the Buddha`s teachings! It is clear that the ruling may do not want to put up with this state of affairs. Had issued an edict forbidding vagrancy 717 g and teaching "shugendo»
718 - but the ban does not produce the desired result. Number of followers has continued to grow ODZUN Enno. They took refuge in the monasteries hidden in the mountains, so they were called "pit-but-Hijiri", ie "mountain sages».
When, during the reign of Empress Koken all real power from 765 to 770 years was concentrated in the hands of the minister monk Dock, persecution of unofficial church intensified. Dock special decree forbade the construction of chapels and churches in the mountains and forests, and the self-styled monks were told to seek out and detain. Repression entailed union mountain hermits wandering monks and some peasants - adherents "shugendo" - in closed communities, and increasing militarization of these communities.
rudiments of knowledge about survival, gleaned from Chinese monks` Lyugai "have been supplemented and expanded, and among themselves" sidoso-gyoza "emphasize the special stratum of warrior monks Shohei, whose main task was the protection of mountain communities from attacks by armed groups sent authorities. Greater role in improving the martial arts "mountain of Zion" played by the fact that after the defeat in the 764 year rebellion Nakamaru Fujiwara surviving rebels, most of whom were professional soldiers fled into the mountains. There they joined the ranks of "Shohei».At the turn of
IX-X centuries the term "pit-but-Hijiri" gradually fell into disuse. Former "mountain of Zion" increasingly came to be called "pit-bushi," which means, in one embodiment, read hieroglyphics, "sleeping in the mountains", and in another - "mountain warriors." At the same time of their doctrine "shugendo" was supplemented and deepened ideas Buddhist school "Shingon" ind. "Mantra", ie magical verbal formula. The founder of this school Kukai 774-835
Left brightest trace in Japanese history. Preacher, poet, philosopher, linguist, calligrapher, painter, sculptor, healer, he became the hero of many legends, remained in people`s memory as a great sage and miracle worker!
created by him for teaching Chinese model was subdivided into explicit and secret. In turn, the secret section includes meditation in the process of contemplation "mandate" something like icons depicting, however, not saints, and Buddhist picture of the universe, the art of spell, ritual postures and gestures. Kukai system gave a sense of real space merger and acquisition of magical power ...
When there ninjutsu schools in pure form? Essentially, these schools leading clans descended from the warrior monks "Shohei", developed by the XI century, although they have not thought of themselves as "ryu", ie, martial arts schools. Transformation Shohei ninja contributed political events.Since mid
X century to the middle of the XVII century the whole of Japan was affected by the war against each other princes, aristocrats and rebellions by popular uprisings. Bloody unrest lasted for more than 700 years in a row!
In such a situation very quickly there was a need for a skilled exploration, which could provide the decisive advantage of any of the warring parties. But the military skill of the samurai, these knights "without fear and without reproach," a number of conditions dictated scouts acting against them. The most important of them was the professionalism of a spy who had to be able not only to extract the desired information in itself is not easy, but as soon as possible and deliver it to the destination. And both require obshchefizicheskoj gorgeous, combat and special training.
Shohei possessed all the necessary qualities of this kind. So they became hereditary in feudal Japan by professional scouts, terrorists and saboteurs. Virtually every daimyo feudal prince tried to win over some clan Shohei to protect themselves from the enemy. So as fate warrior monks were involved in feudal strife and struggle for power. In turn, this has led to the fact that the system of training began to improve rapidly. Clans Shohei one after another turned into "ryu" ninjutsu.
the head of each clan or school that the same were so called "dzenin" keepers of traditions and secrets of schools, their supreme leaders and spiritual mentors. It was the old pit-but-Hijiri and yamabushi. Everyday economic concerns, youth training and guidance specific military operations fell on the shoulders "Tyunin" mid-level in the hierarchy of the ninja. Finally, they were ordinary bulk performers` Genin ».
In the middle of the XIII century became known already about 20 and ninjutsu schools, and to the XVII century they became more than 70. Recruitment ninja in that era came mainly due to "ronin", ie, the samurai who lost service, and along with her salary and the earth. The most famous schools were as follows: Gekko Ryu Ryu Joshu, Yoshitsune-ryu, Iga-ryu Kaizen Ryu, Koga Ryu, Koshu-Ryu, Ryu Matsumoto, Naka-gawa Ryu Ryu Negoro, Rikudzi- Ryu, Shinshu-ryu, Togakure Ryu, Ryu Uesugi, Fuma Ryu Haguro Ryu Ryu Hattori ...
reached its heyday in the era of feudal wars, ninjutsu began to decline after 1615, when the unification of Japan ended in a centralized state and to lasting peace. * Once "no-
* The last major rebellion occurred in 1637-38, the city in Shimabara, near Nagasaki, where against the Tokugawa regime were peasants and ronin, confessed Christianity. With just ten ninja authorities destroyed about 40,000 rebels in Hara Castle.
Deeds "ninja clans in the majority moved to Tinkering and trade. Not finding practical applications to their students, schools of ninjutsu gradually came into full decline. By the time of the bourgeois revolution of 1867-68 Meiji years. Ninjutsu, once terrified the samurai had virtually disappeared, some families where it has inherited, does not count.
terms of samurai`s conditionality feudal social structure and included these conventions and certain rules of war ninja did not recognize the generally accepted ethics, ready to attack the sleeping and strike back, certainly is a complete scoundrels. Accordingly, there could be no question of chivalric regard them as known samurai never tortured their prisoners, except prisoners Ninja subjected to the most refined tortures. They did not deserve nothing but hatred and contempt.However
hatred - it is a feeling that feeds on fear. Ninja were afraid because they embodied the other world - alien, incomprehensible and hostile to the overwhelming majority of the then Japan. They attributed the communication with spirits, werewolves, demons, ghosts and other dark forces. Samurai believed that it was the werewolves "Tengu" evil people, crows were the ancestors of the ninja, transfers its demonic power and diabolical skill. Themselves warriors shadow strongly supported these superstitions, because they are born to potential adversaries feeling of doom and became thus one more weapon in their arsenal. History shows that the advantage of the fear of the evil force, the ninja sometimes succeeded in completely hopeless undertaking.
Ninjutsu was highly functional. All the traditional areas and schools of Japanese martial arts inevitably became the "art for art`s sake." At some stage of their development they began to sacrifice for the sake of efficiency effectively, adequate perception of the real battle for frozen schemes expediency sake ritual. This was because the subordination of certain ethical standards and arising therefrom, "the rules of war." Another thing is that while Japan`s feudal era lasted strife, the process could not go too far.Constant checking
efficiency techniques and tactics in the harsh conditions of this war led to the fact that everything looks beautiful, but not giving tangible superiority over the enemy, perished along with those warriors who went through false. But then, when the bloody feuds are gone, ie, from the middle of the XVII century, the demands of personal security, and availability of external prettiness fighting techniques for everyone triumphed. As an example, karate lessons in special suits cut free, barefoot on soft mats in a warm bright hall, in riot gear, according to certain rules in the eye and in the groin does not beat, hands do not break down, etc.. But try at night, in winter, to strike the opponent Worn asphalt Jodan or ask thugs with knives in hand to observe the "rules" and you`ll see that the majority of little use karate techniques. Especially since there can be no question of absolute superiority over the enemy, which is not provided by the technique and the specific state of the psyche.
Ninjutsu initially was not bound by any ethical, psychological or technical constraints.